Products, Companies, People: What’s In a Name?

Our own name is one of the first things we hear regularly. It produces a specific effect on us, usually positive. It can be overused in sales tactics to build rapport, which sometimes pushes it over the edge into annoying territory. “So, Anne, what I’m trying to say is we have a best-in-class solution. Anne, I really think you’d like it. Would you be open to a call next week, Anne?”

We identify with our name, sometimes losing sight of the fact that we are not what we’re called, and that our name is a construction that was given to us. It’s not just us as individuals who get caught up in self-perception blind spots; others’ perceptions of us can also be impacted by our name. Articles like this one posit name-related impacts in how we’re treated at work, how teachers perceive us, and many other things.

Have you found yourself saying (or heard others say), “Hi, I’m [name], I work at [company name] doing [job name]”? There are 3 items in that sentence that many people take for granted. Personal names, company names, and product names or job roles seem to be written in stone when we first encounter them, but in fact they are all malleable human constructions.

When we call to mind our company name, we likely experience a flood of associations, images, and emotions related to our perceptions. Our experience creates associations between the sound of the name, the visual of the logo, and our mental constructs. Unless we ourselves have started a company or built a brand, it’s easy to forget that a person or group intentionally decided on the name and logo. Because they (likely) did a good job, it seems to us that this name and symbol have existed since the beginning of time. Branding is an exercise that follows a specific, repeatable process. Like anything else, it appears mysterious until we participate in it and see for ourselves.

Job and product names are part of the branding of a company just as much as the colors and logo. Job names may be built to portray a certain image. Level of professionalism, company culture, and more may be implicit in the way roles are named. This can also go overboard and veer into the ridiculous. “Rock star 10x engineer needed who inhales C# and exhales production-ready software same-day.” On the other side of the coin, it may produce job names and descriptions so boring and corporatized that they either put the applicant to sleep or make them laugh. “This role involves supervision of the widget factory, creating team synergy, and leveraging your skills to build a robust future-proof organization.”

There might have been an earnest intention behind these types of descriptions, but their effect can be disingenuous and off-putting. Corporate-speak isn’t doing anyone any favors (linked article is a detailed and worthwhile takedown).

Product names share many of the same characteristics as company names, which is to say created by humans, intended to fulfill branding principles, and, if done well, seem like they’ve always been around. Can you imagine a world without Air Jordans? Without Honda Accords? Without Diet Coke? These are silly and potentially materialistic-seeming examples, but they give an idea of how deeply embedded these terms can become.

What happens, then, when we encounter changes to these names? This looks different depending on which aspect we’re discussing, but the principles are remarkably similar.

For personal names? Marriage, divorce, or intentionally choosing a new first name for any variety of reasons.

For companies? Mergers or rebranding campaigns.

For job roles? Promotions, demotions, or role name changes.

For product names? Updates, reissues, renaming, etc. (Rabid fans will experience this at the same level as some of the personal name changes above since they identify with the products so much!)

All of these can throw our sense of identity into disarray if we strongly cling to ourselves as these names. (Incidentally, this year, I will have gone through a divorce, resultant name change, company change, new role title, company acquisition, and I perform work with a product whose nomenclature and branding frequently changes, so I feel pretty invested in these topics and in my experience of myself as an evolving, impermanent entity.)

If we can’t identify outside of these terms, we may feel personally threatened when changes come our way. It may feel like waking up to a green sky with Coke in a blue can. “It’s just not right!” We mistake what’s right with what we’re used to.

The NY Times recently ran a wonderful post on life transitions. The important thing to note is that transitions are a process, not an event. That means that we can shift our focus from our immediate surroundings to where we’re going. We are a vector, not just a point in space. That means the important thing is which direction we’re headed.

If we know where we’re going, we can glide over the bumps along the way, since we can see their place as temporary frustrations along a path to a better future. If we don’t have the confidence that the direction we’re heading will result in a better future, there are almost always changes and tweaks to be made that can give us a glimmer of hope. It can be something as simple as creating an experience to look forward to, even if it’s as simple as a nap, a picnic, or a good book. It doesn’t have to be expensive or complicated; we can create things to look forward to for ourselves as we define our path and refine our course. This is especially important as the world at large experiences major events such as COVID and political upheaval which may reside outside our immediate control. We create more positive momentum when we take care of ourselves and focus on the contributions we can make rather than the global events and news stories that may throw us into an overwhelmed state of pessimism.

People create brands, worlds, and systems, and you are a person. By virtue of that fact, you have that capacity. What meaning will you build? What beauty will you create? It doesn’t have to be the Sistine Chapel. It can be anything you feel drawn to. Even if you find yourself seemingly at the mercy of outside circumstances (such as involvement in a merger, rebranding, or personal change), you can frame a story – a true one – where you emerge as a better version of your past self. The result of adversity is often creativity and meaning-making. This can be a profound and necessary exercise that results in more authentic, earnest, and compassionate people. Come join us on the journey.

Traveling During COVID, If You Must

Like many of you, I traveled extensively for both business and pleasure prior to the pandemic. I’ve spent several years in the hospitality industry throughout my career, and am a collector of loyalty programs, perks, points, and miles. Also like many people, I felt a tremendous sense of loss when it became impossible to see the world in the same ways. I was supposed to go to Spain in April and Chicago in May this year, neither of which occurred; the Spain flights were actually cancelled by the airline, and I got ahead of that by requesting a refund as soon as the US restricted travel to Europe toward the beginning of the pandemic.

At this point, I am fully part of the “I can’t not travel” club, having participated in airline, hotel, and rental car business during the pandemic, as well as entering an airport lounge. The point of this post is not necessarily to encourage this behavior, but to prepare you, if, like me, you have made a risk vs. reward calculation that ends up with you back in the air.

I researched extensively prior to making the decision to travel again, even though my trips have themselves been executed last-minute. I have people in my life with higher-risk conditions, and didn’t want to put them or any of my friends at risk with my behavior. My procedures are informed by science, the experiences of others who have traveled, and a friend who is a nurse. They generally follow the CDC travel guidelines and are told from my perspective. I have used these procedures myself and recommended them to others who have successfully traveled without getting sick or getting others sick. The usual disclaimers apply: I am not a doctor, and everything you do is at your own risk.

Regions to Travel To

I review trends in the areas I consider traveling to over time for the region and the city/county, depending on the level of detail available. I consider this against the level of interaction I’m likely to have to have in the area – how many public places will I have to encounter? How much indoor vs. outdoor activity will there be? If the trends are headed in the wrong direction AND I’d have to spend a lot of time indoors and/or around crowds, that’s grounds for reconsideration.

People You Are Seeing

If visiting others is part of your trip, how have they been behaving during the pandemic? How many public places do they regularly go to, particularly indoor areas? Have they been wearing masks? Are there family members in and out of the home whose behavior they can’t account for? Do they follow/take seriously scientific findings? Do you generally trust them to be honest? (If not, why are you seeing them?)

At the Airport Before Departure

For domestic flights, which is the only type of flight I’d recommend taking if at all possible, limit your time at the airport. No need for 2 hours before the flight; 30 minutes to an hour if you have pre-check, at most. Most stores are closed anyway, so the time you’d spend looking around on a normal trip doesn’t look the same as it did last year.

Prior to entering the airport, you want to limit the exposure of your face, your clothes, and your belongings to the unknown sea of germs. To do so, you can use a disposable painting suit that zips over your clothes (which you will dispose of on arrival, plus another in your luggage for the return trip), a face shield WITH a mask underneath (plus multiple masks for your destination), and gloves (multiple pairs). You’ll want to have a plastic bag easily accessible on the plane that contains antibacterial wipes, antibacterial lotion, and potentially a hydrating nasal spray. You may also wish to bring a nasal irrigation kit such as the NeilMed Sinus Rinse kit to your destination. This isn’t a glamorous thing to discuss, but studies such as this one indicate that saline nasal irrigation can be a good adjunct to other measures to combat viruses. It is also a good practice for allergy sufferers. It should always be undertaken with distilled water (which can be purchased/delivered at your destination), not tap water, and with a sanitized container. There are also pre-mixed saline rinse kits available if you are not sure of the availability of distilled water for delivery where you are going.

Face shields alone, worn without masks, are insufficient. There are many articles to this effect, such as this one.

For the gloves, it can be easy to accidentally touch multiple items, then touch your skin or face if you are not careful. I use gloves for specific tasks, such as if it’s necessary to hold onto a railing or post while on transportation within the airport, or if it’s necessary to open a frequently touched surface, such as an overhead compartment or a restroom door. I immediately dispose of the gloves afterwards, then sanitize my hands.

In general, in the days leading up to airline travel, it is ideal to eat healthfully and hydrate more than usual to go into the trip feeling your best. Being in a pressurized cabin can be dehydrating, and even in normal times, that’s less than ideal.

Airport Lounges

Do not arrive any earlier just to spend time in the lounge. Lounges are a smaller indoor area than the terminal, but potentially have fewer people in and out, more spaced-out seating, and fewer total people using the restroom. For this reason, lounges may potentially be a safer spot in some ways for short periods. Additionally, the food in most lounges these days is set up for individual portions rather than buffet-style as you may have been used to. If you need to very quickly grab some food without waiting in a crowded line, this can be a good option, especially as there is no more meal service on many shorter flights, even in first class. Some airlines have pre-bagged snacks, and for longer flights, sometimes first class will have boxed meals, depending on the airline. Food for purchase is not generally available; bringing your own snacks may be the safest bet. If you can avoid eating on the plane, that’s safer, as you won’t have to remove your mask. These details are changing very regularly and depend heavily on the airline, so check on these before you go.

On the Plane

The safest area to sit on a plane is a window seat in first class, if you can manage it. This is reflected in several articles, including this one. Try to take a short enough flight and plan your hydration to where you do not have to use the restroom on the plane.

On arrival to your seat, wipe down the seat back pocket, seat controls, screen, remotes, air vents, and any other surfaces with an antibacterial wipe that you immediately place in a bag whose only purpose is to be thrown away. You can bring an empty plastic bag for this purpose. The airlines are sanitizing the planes, but may not necessarily be getting every potential surface in detail between each flight. After touching any common areas apart from those at your seat, use hand sanitizer. If you receive anything from the flight attendant, wipe it down, then sanitize your hands after touching it.

Keep your luggage with you if possible so you do not have to go to baggage claim and spend additional time at the airport once you reach your destination.

Upon Arrival

Head directly out of the airport, avoiding stopping anywhere if at all possible. Take off the disposable suit, face shield, and any gloves, and immediately throw them in the trash in the nearest outdoor trash can. If you must use the restroom upon arrival, do so quickly, and as usual, throughly wash your hands. Maintain your mask while outside, especially in ground transportation areas where you may be in close proximity to others.

Rental Car

In general, rental cars are preferable to public transportation or ride share options, as they are used by fewer people, and sanitized between uses. It is ideal to use a Lysol wipe on the mirror controls, seat controls, radio, dashboard, and other frequently touched areas.


The major hotel chains have detailed protocols in place for cleaning far in excess of pre-pandemic procedures. The CDC also has guidelines for hotels. My suggestion is to stay with a major chain either by yourself or with people from your own household that you have been quarantining with prior to travel. Upon arrival, use your saline nasal rinse. You may also wish to shower and change clothes for extra measure. Use Lysol wipes on door handles and other frequently touched areas. Most hotels are placing the remote in a bag these days and remembering how much of a germ magnet it is, a fact that was lost prior to the pandemic. When in common areas and upon leaving the hotel, wear a mask.

One unanticipated thing that happened to me was a middle-of-the-night fire alarm, resulting in an evacuation and fire department response. I made it outside without a mask, but was mostly able to keep my distance from others. While I hope this does not happen to you, it may be prudent to have a “go bag” with your critical items and a mask in the event you have to quickly evacuate, because you really never know with 2020.

While at Your Destination

Take all the same precautions, if not more, that you would if you were in your home city. Continue to wear masks in all public places and frequently wash your hands. Avoid spending extended time in indoor areas. If meeting others from outside of your household, favor outdoor activities where distance can be maintained.

Returning Home

Follow all the same procedures as with the departing flight. Quarantine for at least 2 weeks prior to traveling again. Immediately wash all your clothing, potentially using Lysol laundry additive. Wipe down your bags and frequently touched items, especially your phone, keys, etc.


Every action we take is a calculation, whether at home or while traveling. Articles like this one contextualize the odds of plane travel as not being particularly bad, and activities at one’s destination to be of greater importance. It’s best to avoid stacking multiple high-risk actions, such as both traveling on a plane AND attending a large event. This is how “super spreader” scenarios happen. I believe it is possible to travel relatively safely, but it requires significant effort, and nothing is a guarantee. If you must travel for whatever reason, take what you can from these tips. May you have the best of luck and avoid 5 AM fire alarms.

Law and Order and Analytics and You

Like many people (around 73 million), I watched the presidential debate last night. As difficult as it was to watch, it brought to the fore the stages of moral development, with its focus on “law and order” and discussion of motivation behind actions taken, such as paying taxes.

Morality is not a static framework, but rather one that changes as we age and develop personally over time. Sometimes people stop at a certain stage, but the possibilities are there to move beyond externally-imposed rules into universal ethics.

Why does this matter in analytics? If we administer an implementation, we become enforcers and gatekeepers of information. We’re also tasked with being the last voice of reason before any questionable code or privacy-violating item goes live. If we’re analysts, we might be pressured to present information a certain way to reach a pre-drawn conclusion. We might be caught among political factions within a company each vying for their piece of the pie, and here were are trying to present an unvarnished truth, which may have negative consequences for one of those factions.

How we respond to these challenges may vary depending on where we are within the stages of moral development. For the sake of this post, we’re speaking of Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development. To get ahead of this, there are valid criticisms/limitations of this framework, namely that is centered around Western males, as is much of 20th century psychology. However, I believe it’s useful to illustrate a general point.

There are 3 primary stages: Pre-Conventional, Conventional, and Post-Conventional moral reasoning. In the Pre-Conventional stage, the individual is focused only on external punishment, then later what is in it for them to obey authority. In the Conventional stage, laws are obeyed due to a desire to conform socially and gain acceptance among one’s peer group, then later to uphold societal norms. There is still a focus on external authority and consequences. In the Post-Conventional stage, there is a recognition that laws are human creations, and unjust laws should be changed to laws with greater benefit through democratic process. Finally, there is a recognition that laws must be grounded in justice to be recognized as valid, and there is an obligation to disobey laws that are unjust. There is also a clarity of one’s own values to determine what is acceptable. In the Post-Conventional stage, there is an ability to place ourselves in another’s shoes and feel empathy for their position. This stage is the only one to rise above the level of the individual to universal ethics.

How does this look when translated to life and to an analytics career? Let’s take examples from each stage for common scenarios.


Life: “I will pay the minimum amount of taxes I can get away with, because the IRS will punish me if I don’t.”

Analytics Admin: “I won’t deploy this problematic code because I’ll lose my job if I do it.”

Analyst: “I won’t lie on this report because I’ll lose my job if I do it,” or worse, “I will report this selectively to make things look better, because I’ll lose my job if I don’t.”


Life: “I will pay taxes because I want to be perceived as a conforming person and because this is a social norm.”

Analytics Admin: “I won’t deploy this problematic code because I’ll lose the respect of my peers in the industry/company if I do it.”

Analyst: “I won’t lie on this report because I want other people to see me as an honest employee.”


Life: “I will pay taxes to benefit others, and will also campaign against uses of my tax dollars I disagree with.” or “If everyone refused to pay taxes, critical infrastructure and education would be at risk, so I will pay them, and also campaign against uses I disagree with.”

Analytics Admin: “I won’t deploy this problematic code because of the impact it would have on the people that visit our site. I care about their privacy and personal information, because I would be incensed if a company was careless with my information.”

Analyst: “I won’t lie on this report, because honesty is important to me in principle. It would lead to incorrect conclusions that would ultimately hurt the business to lie about the current state of affairs, so I will produce an accurate report regardless of internal political pressures.”

There are many other possible examples and outcomes possible here, but hopefully the above examples illustrate the differences in approach among the various stages. Most adults remain in Conventional morality and do not progress to Post-Conventional. For that reason, there may always be a need for a carrot/stick approach and peer pressure to promote things like public health initiatives, getting marketers to consistently use tracking codes, encouraging users to read the knowledge base you spent hours creating, etc.

We have real responsibilities, no matter what our role is in our organization, to pursue the highest moral good we can. We all encounter situations where we come to a crossroads that can have legal implications, particularly in the ever-changing landscape of privacy laws. It is up to us what we do and why. The outcome will determine our own future and that of our companies.

Who are you, really?

This is primarily an analytics blog, but I’ve expanded my definition of “acceptable posts” a bit to include broader topics of interest to those in the industry. Part of being in any field is how we define ourselves in relation to it, and how attached we are (or aren’t) to our job. As humans, we tend to attach to temporary circumstances as if they were permanent, causing a lot of suffering when they are no longer around. We live in a rapidly changing industry, and our self-concept can suffer if we tie it to things that disappear.

How do you define yourself? Your job? The city you live in? Your home? Your marriage/relationship? Your dietary habits? Your family dynamic? Your possessions? Your pets? These are all impermanent. In fact, I’ve had total or partial losses or changes in every single one of these areas in 2020, and I’m still standing. That means that there is a part of me (and a part of you) that isn’t defined by any of these things, despite our insistence on introducing ourselves by these definitions. I didn’t disappear or fly away when all these things happened, which means who I am, and who you are, is larger than all of that.

The point of this post isn’t to dwell too long on my personally difficult year, but to illustrate that the things we think we depend on aren’t actually required for us to live a fulfilling life.

It’s easy to fall into alarmism these days – our whole field is seemingly at risk because of a browser change! Who’s down with ITP (yeah you know me?) Big companies are getting sued for privacy violations! CNAME records may be at risk! Webkit policies go brrrr! [Insert favorite extension here] is no longer available on the Chrome Web Store! Let’s take a deep breath and run some comparisons (and perhaps create a parody of “We Didn’t Start the Fire” while we’re at it).

Digital analytics as a field is constantly evolving. So many things that were “the death of analytics” have fallen flat, as have all previous predictions of the world at large ending. This is not to say that the industry is infallible by any stretch, or that it’s wrong to bring up potential big changes, but we can’t jump ahead to the worst conclusions before things are even productionalized. We also have to be realistic that entire industries transform unimaginably given sufficient time.

If, for example, analytics were forced to undergo a transformation as vast as the one from horse-drawn carriages to cars (or, more aptly, from slide rules to calculators), would this really be a bad thing? Innovation for innovation’s sake isn’t what I’m after, but innovation that moves the world forward and gets people to their intended result more quickly is a net positive. The first stage of innovation is upheaval and disruption of established norms. At this stage, everything looks crazy from the outside and the new method/product hasn’t achieved wide acceptance yet. As time passes and acceptance grows, some of the initially reticent people will come to accept it, followed by eventually the most skeptical. It’s all part of the product adoption curve, which can be applied to technologies/approaches in addition to actual products.

Most of the well-known writers in this industry are innovators/early adopters in terms of this curve. That means that they’re learning about things as they occur, and those things may or may not take off enough to reach full adoption. That’s part of why we can’t be overly alarmist each time something new comes down the line. It’s a tight balance between staying informed and information overload/analysis paralysis.

To succeed and grow, we must find a home within ourselves as people independent of outside forces. From our solid foundation, we can bring our whole selves to our jobs, ready to weather the forces of change, and know ourselves as larger than our circumstances. We are nothing if not our ability to adapt and prosper from seeming adversity.

When I think about these concepts, I can’t help but hear the voice of Tyler Durden: “You are not your job. You are not the contents of your wallet.” Of course, he goes on to say “You are the all-singing, all-dancing crap of the world,” which is the opposite of what I’m saying to you.

Granted, everyone can feel like that at times, but what I’m trying to eventually get to is a message of…hope? I’m not all the way there, but may we all achieve a strong enough sense of ourselves that we can know who we are outside of the constantly changing background of circumstances. Who might that be? Someone who knows themselves, their intentions, what they value, and how well they can adapt in any situation.

Games of Chance, Analytics, and Life

I’ve come to notice over the past few years an interesting overlap between those interested in analytics and those interested in gambling. I’ll be the first to admit that I have a long-held aversion to gambling, and at one point actually took vows that prohibited it as part of a mindfulness practice. (They’ve since expired, but I still haven’t participated.) However, I’ve been conducting an inquiry into why this overlap exists, which has led me down an interesting psychological and intellectual pathway worth detailing.

The common theme among many analytics professionals whose work I respect has been an interest in poker, a game of chance, skill, psychological profiling of self and others, good old fashioned razzing your opponents, and calculated risk, among other things. As I thought more about this, I began to see where this dovetailed with both key focuses of an analytics career, as well as an approach to life in general.

Part I: Chance, Skill, and Calculated Risk

Many of us have come from or at some point worked in the world of startups, whether that be marketing technology companies, early employees of the major vendors, smaller agencies, or otherwise. To succeed in this world requires a level of risk-taking and openness to experience that not everyone possesses, with no guarantees of success. Those startups that bend the odds in their favor do so because of factors such as timing of their product launch, the state of the market/competition, resonance with users, the image the company projects, and, sometimes, the personal charisma of the founders and/or spokespeople. Additionally, stock options, often offered to early employees, are themselves a gamble. So much of this is “right place, right time” type of luck, but a percentage of it is skill. VC firms invest in a portfolio of companies, expecting many of them to fail, but making up for it with a few outsized successes.

To succeed in poker requires a similar combination of factors. There are mathematical odds that can be calculated at every step, but there is a human factor that can bend the game in a particular direction. Players that succeed do so because of factors such as the relative inexperience or exploitable qualities of others at the table (state of the market/competition), ability to stay multiple steps ahead and project what others might do (which translates to building an effective user experience, as well as an effective company), and an ability to control how others see them (image/charisma). Ultimately, however, the game is played against the unforgiving master of probability combined with human psychology, which can create winner’s tilt (startups that are unicorns due to some chance factor who then go on to risk everything and lose it all), or bad tilt (startups that have a hard time acquiring customers, acquire a bad attitude instead, and end with the founders throwing in the towel and/or selling the company in a fire sale).

(For those unfamiliar with these terms, you can read further about understanding tilt and avoiding tilt.)

It’s easy to see why someone willing to gamble on a startup (or willing to enter a field that is fairly new and constantly changing) would be willing, able, and interested in literal gambling.

Part II: Psychological Profiling

To succeed in the corporate world requires self-knowledge, as well as an understanding of how to interact with varying personalities and groups. This is actively encouraged, particularly as one approaches the executive levels. The vast array of coaching, personality inventories, and team building boggles the mind (and accounts for a very large industry). There is nothing wrong with this, as there’s value for business and for life in having a realistic assessment of one’s own strengths and weaknesses, as well as how those interplay with those of others. However, this can quickly veer into unproven methodologies, the poppiest of pop psychology, etc.

Skill in poker also involves quite a bit of psychological profiling. As players advance, they are encouraged to assess the others at the table in terms of where they’re from, their tells, their appearance, their demeanor, etc. This can translate into an intuition for how they might behave or perceive the actions someone else takes, which can be exploited for gain. The gain in poker is taking someone else’s [real or theoretical] money, whereas the gain in business is getting others to work well with you. It can also, however, translate to stealing customers from a competitor when a crack is discovered in the façade of their product, which brings us to our next point.

Part III: Razzing Your Opponents

Many companies, particularly smaller ones but some larger ones as well, create a bond among their employees over outfoxing the competition. Any misstep by a competitor is celebrated and viewed as an opportunity to make fun of them (usually off the record), pursue that company’s frustrated clients with the promise of a better experience, or simply enjoy the schadenfreude. Sometimes this translates to the public space, such as John Legere’s direct tweets lovingly insulting other cellular providers in recent years.

Realistically, though, it’s also important not to underestimate the competition, or assume they’re not doing their due diligence on you as well. As humans, we tend to overestimate the amount of success due to our own skill and underestimate the role of luck. This relates to hindsight bias and hyperactive pattern detection. (Very interesting reading the The Atlantic on this phenomenon in general, and in The Sydney Morning Herald as it applies to poker and the stock market.)

In poker, putting others on tilt by finding their buttons is encouraged. Knowing them better than they know themselves and not letting them get comfortable are real strategies. Here we find something likely to be familiar to our aforementioned early startup employees: projecting a larger-than-life image and needling the competition. Brings to mind Salesforce’s early days of staging fake protests and commandeering taxis at competitors’ events.

Part IV: An Approach to Life

So, where does that leave us? What if one isn’t interested in putting real or imaginary money on the line, but finds these concepts fascinating? You might be someone who gambles with their life, which is actually all of us. I don’t mean in the sense of risking death per se, but we all take calculated risks every day (which goes without saying during COVID-19 especially).

To assess our risks and life choices requires the following:

  1. An understanding of cognitive biases
  2. Mindfulness of our thoughts
  3. Realistic odds calculation (e.g. understanding of real-life probability)
  4. A decision to act

These are solid life skills I don’t hesitate to universally recommend. If poker gets you there, great. My cautions are 3:

  1. The obvious risks of financial ruin and addictive behavior. If you’re struggling with these, there are resources like this one, which includes a great chart further down on how to satisfy the same urges that cause problem gambling, as well as organizations on the topic.
  2. The risks to one’s worldview. What do I mean by this? I’ll use the example of when I did a fair bit of karate at one point in my life. This caused me to view every public encounter from the perspective of which escape routes I had and which moves I could pull if someone came at me from various angles. When you have a hammer, everything’s a nail. Similarly, if you view life from a poker perspective, it’s a zero sum game, where intentions conflict and players don’t cooperate around a common goal. “But isn’t life actually like that, Anne?” Not necessarily, though game theory is interesting and includes more than this approach. I find Stephen Covey’s book The Third Alternative an interesting perspective as well if you want to get away from zero-sum thinking (concept here, book here).
  3. The motivation that gets you to the game. If it fulfills a need for you and doesn’t cause problems in your life, all the better. It’s important to be realistic about what brings you to the table. I’ve seen a pattern where people sign up to break themselves against the odds at times when the rest of their life has gotten out of control. Games can provide a controlled microcosm in which to play out our psychological tendencies, and can be an expression of avoidance or desperation. They can also be a fun diversion.

Overall, my inquiry has led me to a deeper appreciation of the parallels, life skills, and complexity behind the game. I don’t know if I’ll ever play personally or not, but I’ve learned a lot toying with these ideas. If you have experience with these areas, feel free to share in the comments.

Additional articles of interest:

How I Used Professional Poker to Become a Data Scientist

Psychology and Poker

Hold or Fold – Playing Your Big Data Hand to Win

What UTM Tags and Poker Have in Common (funny video)

Tracking YouTube Videos in iFrames with Adobe Launch: A Simpler Approach

Making this process a little less painful by going as directly as possible to the YouTube API.


Embedded YouTube videos in iFrames are everyone’s favorite (read: least favorite) scenario to encounter when designing tracking for a site, particularly if you do not have access to development resources to send details on video activity. Fortunately, there are ways for you to manage this entirely yourself!

What Doesn’t Work

First, let’s rule out some things that won’t work in this scenario so you know what to avoid:

The Built-in Core Extension’s Media – Play, Pause, etc. Events: Using the CSS selector of the iFrame or the surrounding components will not properly pick up the events in this scenario.

The Adobe Analytics for Video Launch Extension: This still requires you to take an additional step of mapping the events received from YouTube, which we’ll do here with some simple code without having to use this extension.

The YouTube Embed Extension for Adobe Launch: If your video already exists on the page, this won’t help you, as this extension is used to insert videos on the page.

Past Solutions from DTM

Next, let’s discuss some past solutions from the world of DTM:

Adobe’s DTM Recommendation: This requires additional parameters to be added onto the video URL (which we can do from our side in the tag manager, rather than rely on making updates across the whole site). It also requires the additional of a large custom code block for the Adobe Media Tracking code.

33Sticks DTM Recommendation: This is a great place to start, as it automatically appends the proper parameters onto the video with no work from other developers. However, perhaps you’re trying to reduce the amount of custom code you have overall, and you may not want to rely on the continued functioning of the raw Adobe Analytics Media Module code in the world of Launch.

Can we do the same thing with fewer lines of code and without relying on things like Heartbeat, the Media Module, etc.? Turns out we can!

How This All Got Started

I was working through a particularly ornery YouTube video tracking scenario and wanted to start completely from scratch to get the cleanest possible solution with the least amount of code that I felt would maintain well long-term. The YouTube API seems fairly stable, and as long as that doesn’t change significantly (and if it did, it would be clearly announced), this code should continue to work for a good while.

I was playing around with multiple options, and had a jam session with the fantastic Jim Gordon, owner of what I’ll call my “brother site”, Jimalytics and creator of the Tagtician Chrome extension. We both played around in the console for awhile, I hit upon the different event states, and we had an impromptu hackathon where this all came together pretty quickly. The majority of the second code block is based his work while we talked through it in that session. I’ve made additional modifications for my use case and written up the details so we can share this with the world.

Requirements for this Solution

We’ll need the following items for this work:

  • The addition of the enablejsapi parameter to the video URL and a unique player ID to be appended to each video on the page (even if you have only one video on the page, it still needs an ID). This allows the items from within the iFrame to communicate with the surrounding site.
  • Code to listen for the YouTube events and map them to _satellite.track call
  • Rules set up in Adobe Launch to listen for the direct calls you set up above
  • Events and Variables configured in Adobe Analytics admin to receive these events

Assumptions: you are running an existing, functional implementation of Adobe Analytics and Experience Cloud ID service on your site.

Part 1: Adding the enablejsapi parameter and unique player IDs to all YouTube videos on the site

Jason Thompson has already done exactly this in the first part of the above 33Sticks post, so we can use the same method – no need to change what works!

We’ll use this to append the parameters and IDs in cases where we see that the Enable JS API parameter is not already present.

This code should go in the Adobe Analytics extension in the “Configure Tracker Using Custom Code” section. (General note: when copying/pasting code, ensure proper formatting is retained, and ideally paste into a plaintext file or code editor to save locally before adding to Adobe Launch.)

/*Video Code Block 1 of 2: Append Enable JS API Parameter and Unique Video ID for Video Tracking.*/
var n=0;

jQuery('iframe').each(function() {
 var src = jQuery(this).attr('src');
	if (src.indexOf('') > -1) {
    	if (src.indexOf('?') > -1) {
			if (src.indexOf('enablejsapi') == -1) {
				src = src + '&enablejsapi=1';
     	} else {
	 		src = src + '?enablejsapi=1';

		jQuery(this).attr('id','player' +n);


Part 2: Code to Listen for the YouTube events and map them to _satellite.track calls

Here’s, it’s important to understand the values that the YouTube API passes back for the various video states:

  • -1 – unstarted
  • 0 – ended
  • 1 – playing
  • 2 – paused
  • 3 – buffering
  • 5 – video cued

We’ll reference these numbers in the code, so this will help you understand what is happening in the case statements you see. You can read the full YouTube API documentation here, but you don’t need most of it for this solution; feel free to reference if you want to customize further. You might also see the following in other code:

  • YT.PlayerState.ENDED
  • YT.PlayerState.PLAYING
  • YT.PlayerState.PAUSED
  • YT.PlayerState.BUFFERING
  • YT.PlayerState.CUED

These are identical to the above numeric values, and we’ll be using the numeric values only in this example.

Key things to know:

  • This example tracks 3 events: start, end, and pause. This code can be modified using the event codes listed above to add additional case statements as needed.
  • This code doesn’t collect video name but could easily be modified to do so using after reading through the YouTube API details, or you could grab the document.title from the overall window in a data element for later use, whatever makes the most sense for your use case.
  • This code example assumes there is always only 1 video per page, and that you are using the script above to insert the player names. That is why the name “player0” is hard-coded in. You can make this piece of the code dynamic to look for any player name according to the syntax you are using.
  • Auto-play videos sometimes play too soon to be caught immediately if the Adobe code takes time to load.
  • The channel name can be a name that you specify. In 2 locations, I have the placeholder text “channelnameofyourchoice.” Change this to a more meaningful name describing the type of videos your site hosts.

Without further ado, here is the second block to add just beneath the earlier one in the “Configure Tracker Using Custom Code” section of the Adobe Analytics extension.

/*Video Code Block 2 of 2: Add event listener and fire _satellite.track rules. */ 

try {var addYoutubeEventListener = (function() {

    var callbacks = [];
    var iframeId = 0;

    return function (iframe, callback) {

        // init message listener that will receive messages from youtube iframes

        if(iframeId === 0) {
            window.addEventListener("message", function (e) {

                if(e.origin !== "" || === undefined) return;
                try {
                    var data = JSON.parse(;
                    if(data.event !== 'onStateChange') return;

                    var callback = callbacks[];
                catch(e) {}

        // store callback
        callbacks[iframeId] = callback;
        var currentFrameId = iframeId;

        // sendMessage to frame to start receiving messages
        iframe.addEventListener("load", function () {
            var message = JSON.stringify({
                event: 'listening',
                id: currentFrameId,
                channel: 'channelnameofyourchoice'

            iframe.contentWindow.postMessage(message, '');

            message = JSON.stringify({
                event: "command",
                func: "addEventListener",
                args: ["onStateChange"],
                id: currentFrameId,
                channel: "channelnameofyourchoice"
            iframe.contentWindow.postMessage(message, '');

addYoutubeEventListener(document.getElementById("player0"), function(e) {
    switch( {
        case 1:
        case 0:
        case 2:

catch(err) {console.log("Video Tracking Not Present");}

Part 3: Set up Rules in Adobe Launch to Capture The Direct Calls

Now that you have added the appropriate parameters to the video and captured the events from the video, you want to ensure these events make it into Adobe Analytics. For purposes of this post, we’re going to assume you have the ability to create new rules in your Adobe Launch environment, and that you’re an experienced Adobe Analytics administrator who has already set up the appropriate events for the different video states you’d like to track.

In my example above, I am sending video_start, video_end, and video_pause. I’ll need to create one rule for each.

Name each new Launch rule according to your rule naming convention. (What? you don’t have one? Jim and I agree on that as well – check out his post here. I tend to use a modification of this in a lot of my implementations using the same principles. He’s written them up in a concise way in this article.)

In the “IF” section, select “Core” as the Extension and “Direct Call” as the event type. In the “identifier” section, enter the same text you are sending in the _satellite.track calls in your code, for example video_start for the Video Start rule. Keep your changes and go back to the main rule.

In the Conditions section, you have the option to save yourself a lot of server calls (i.e. money). Do you really want to fire something every single time every visitor plays, pauses, or ends a video, especially if there are a lot of visitors and/or a lot of videos and/or really distracted visitors who pause a lot? If you only want to know whether something occurred at least once, you can set a condition using logic type Regular, the “Core” extension, and a “Max Frequency” condition type. You can set it to return true no more than once every “1” page views. This will prevent the call from going out over and over again if people are taking multiple actions. You’ll be able to see the difference if you look at your network calls before and after implementing the max frequency setting.

In the Actions section, you’ll want Adobe Analytics – Clear Variables, Adobe Analytics – Set Variables, and Adobe Analytics – Send Beacon.

  • In the Set Variables item, select the appropriate event to fire, and add any additional informational eVars you might want to configure for the video name, etc.
  • In the Send Beacon section, select the option so that the event is not treated as a new page view. You can optionally enter a custom link name to describe the video action, but this is not required and is a bit duplicative.

Testing On Your Site

Build your changes into a development library. Navigate to a page where a video is present on your site, either on a page on your lower environment, or by going to your production site and using something like the Launch and DTM Switch Chrome extension (or the Charles Proxy Map Remote function if you’re feeling fancy or not using Chrome) to switch out the environment reference to use your development library on the prod site. Take various actions on the video while monitoring your network calls or looking in a debugger and ensure the events fire when you expect them to. If everything looks good, publish and re-test on production.

Final Thoughts

Our little experiment turned into something that can hopefully be of use to a larger audience. Play around and see what works for you!


What they don’t teach you in DTM school

This article assumes a solid general tag manager as well as DTM-specific knowledge base. It will help take you from a “by the book” example implementation to the much messier real world.

There are also some bonus non-DTM tips in here as well.

1. You cannot set events using both in custom code and in the UI*

Let’s say you are setting in custom code because you need to set events equal to currency amounts rather than just increment them, since this is a limitation of the UI.

You might have something like (example order confirmation scenario): “event59=”+_satellite.getVar(‘orderTotalProductDiscount’)+”,event60=”+_satellite.getVar(‘orderLevelProductRevenue’)+”,purchase”;

Then, you might later come into the UI and add an event in the Events area. This would be a mistake. The custom code will override the UI, and the UI entry will be meaningless. You have to now add ALL events on the given rule in the custom code section.

*Update: you can, but it’s not the best nor intuitive. See Jenn Kunz’s comment on this post for more.

2. You must avoid special characters in product syntax merchandising eVars to avoid conflict with the product string

Merchandising eVars should not use any characters that are reserved due to their functions in the product string. Prime examples include the semicolon (used to separate pieces of the product string), the pipe | which is used to separate merchandising eVars from each other, or a comma, which is used to end an iteration of the product string. This may seem like common sense, but these sorts of characters are remarkably common in data layers, particularly those serving dual purpose for Google Analytics. Characters like the pipe are used to separate page hierarchies, for example ( Level 1 | Level 2 | Level 3 ). I try to avoid the following characters to stay out of trouble:

*Avoid the below completely or replace with a space

& ; , + % @ # ! * () {} [] ‘ ” =

*Replace | with /

*Avoid hidden or non-ASCII characters

3. “Data element changed” has several limitations

To detect a change in a data element, DTM listens periodically for changes. This makes it attractive as a rule condition. However, “periodically” is often not enough when the change occurs when moving from one page to another. Alternatives that pick up more quickly are using _satellite.track and setting up a direct call rule, or using a CSS selector in an event-based rule if it applies if you are fairly confident it is stable and will not change (keep tabs on it anyway). All of these will be detected more quickly than data element changed.

The second limitation is that data element changed is text-based, not time-based. What I mean is that it is looking for a change in the contents of the data element, but if you push the same text to the data element again, it won’t be detected as a change. Let’s say that you do 2 of the same thing in a row, for example adding an item to the cart from a given page. If you have a data element showing the contents of your event array, and you are depending on it to change to trigger add to cart-related items, it will only trigger once for the 2 add to carts you did from the page if your data element just picks up “addToCart” each time (or whatever text is in the data element.) A way around this is to send an incrementing number at the end of the text string (e.g addToCart1, addToCart2) so it gets detected as a change. This is somewhat inelegant but gets the job done. I have had to use it when I had a structure I couldn’t modify and insufficient dev hours to make an ideal set of changes, for example.

4. There are more special characters to avoid in classification uploads than those listed in Adobe’s help documentation

OK, this one is not DTM-specific, but it’s still a “what they don’t tell you.”

*You cannot use single quotes around data in a classification file. You might be tempted to do this to avoid leading 0’s from being removed from a product ID, for example. However, if you do, it will cause issues with your upload and has been confirmed by my own frustration and client care’s subsequent confirmation that this should be avoided. This is not documented anywhere that I have seen that single quotes surrounding cell data cause issues, but they definitely do. The solution is to use something other than Excel (basic text editors, etc.) to edit the file so the leading 0’s do not get cut off or change your Excel settings accordingly.

*This may be obvious but it happens all the time – avoid using the separator character in the file if at all possible (e.g. tabs within a cell within a tab-separated file). If you must: you can get around this by changing v:2.0 to v:2.1 in cell C1 in the classification template. You can also escape the special characters.

*Using tab (/t), form feed (/r), new line (/n), double quote (“), caret (^), or pound (#) are all no-nos within a cell unless you escape them. The pound symbol within a cell will get your data interpreted as a comment and ignored, which you don’t want, for example.

*Something that doesn’t get repeated often enough: the first row under the header must be blank in the file; your data starts on the following row. If you don’t do this, your file won’t always upload.

5. There are non-publicly documented differences in default allocation for the pages (s.pagename) report between different Adobe products

(Another non-DTM item, but very important to understand.)

Reports and Analytics: uses linear allocation

Workspace: only shows values set on the same hit where the pageName is set

Data Warehouse: uses linear allocation

Ad Hoc Analysis: can be set to default, last, or linear allocation

This means your data will very likely not match if you are looking at the Pages report for a given set of events in R&A vs. Workspace.

6. When you set up the Google Analytics tool in DTM, don’t choose “Google Analytics”

Because you might want to go back in time to before October 2012, it’s still possible to use ga.js rather than analytics.js. You really don’t want to, though. If you want a recognizable, modern GA with enhanced eCommerce capabilities, you will want to add the “Google Universal Analytics” tool. If you choose “Google Analytics” by mistake, enjoy your trip back to the early days of web analytics. Perhaps we can also add an option for Urchin, or Site Counter. I digress.

7. Common marketing tags that you would copy/paste as custom JavaScript or HTML in other tools must be rewritten if you want to run them as non-sequential JavaScript

There are many things that need to happen above and beyond removing surrounding script tags for JS-based marketing tags to run successfully as non-sequential JavaScript in DTM. You will have to rewrite many common tags. Jenn Kunz has a great article on specifics with some good examples here.The recent, uh, “launch” of Adobe Launch (the newest Adobe tag manager) offers hope for this scenario and many others mentioned above, and as it continues to evolve I hope to see these scenarios and more handled.

Testing Checkout Without Using Your Own Credit Card

Don’t use your personal credit card when test credit cards abound!

Proper revenue recording is a critical piece of analytics implementation and testing, but I’m always surprised how few vendors and analysts seem to be aware of the publicly available test credit numbers that are available for use. I’ve heard too many instances of people using their own (real!) cards and then cancelling the purchase, or even actually buying things from the site for test purposes. That’s fine if you actually want to make a purchase, but given the amount of test scenarios required, that can become an expensive habit quickly.

Payment processors typically accept a standard suite of test credit cards that will allow an order to go through on the site, but that are flagged after the fact as a test card and the order is not fulfilled. If you are doing this on production versions of the site, be forewarned that this can impact your order-related metrics both in the analytics platform (artificially increase them provided your IP isn’t blocked in the platform you are validating in) and increase error rates in order management systems since this (as intended) won’t actually go through. It is also true that certain sites are configured to not accept test credit cards in their production instance, so you may receive an error; however, the majority of sites will allow these to be used.

With those caveats out of the way, allow me to introduce you to the standard suite of test cards:

This is one of the best resources out there and includes many different scenarios and international cards as well.

The testing procedure is as follows:

  • Go through the normal process to add items to your cart and proceed to checkout
  • For the name, it is helpful to use “Test Test” or something similar so it’s clear this isn’t a real order
  • For email address, it’s ideal to use a valid one you have access to, so that you can receive the order confirmation email
  • For shipping/billing address and phone, use clearly phony data that still meets validation criteria (e.g. 123 Main Street in a given city and 212-555-5555 as the phone)
  • For the CVV (3-4 digit code), use any set of numbers
  • For the expiration date, use any future month/year combination

The site will inform you if there is any error confirming the order, but most times, you’ll get through. Make sure to have your debugger and/or console open and recording prior to purchase so you can see the analytics call come through. I’ll be sending this post as a reference next time I hear talk of someone using a personal card for analytics testing!

The Data Layer: A Primer

The data layer is a key part of most modern web analytics implementations, but it seems there are not many resources to explain it to a less technical audience, or perhaps to someone who is technical but new to working with it. Let’s start with the basics:

What is it? In the world of the W3C data layer (more on that in a minute), the data layer is a JSON object.

To break that statement down, W3C is the World Wide Web Consortium. They provide standards for the web that align architecture and design principles so that the web can work well and continue to grow. (This may seem unnecessary because it seems like the internet “just works”, but if you weren’t around for the wild west days where there were vast differences between what different browsers supported across the web, standards are most welcome and necessary.)

JSON is JavaScript Object Notation. JSON is a way to organize and structure data objects in a human-readable way. It answers the questions “What is this item called, and what is its value?” For example, to take a somewhat amusing example from the W3C’s full documentation, how easy would it be (without knowing anything about the data layer) to answer the question of which product we are viewing here?

digitalData.product[n].productInfo = {
productID: “rog3000”,
productName: “Rogaine”,
description: “Hair Regrowth”,
productURL: “”,
productImage: “”, productThumbnail: “”, manufacturer: “Pharma”,size: “300ml” };

Pretty simple to see, right? It’s easy to look at this and see the items and what they represent. Contrast this with something like s.eVar47= “rog3000” (which is how the productID piece of this would look if it was hard-coded and assigned to Adobe Analytics conversion variable 47), and you can see how much more human readable this format is.

Why is it? There are many advantages of the data layer, but here are a few. The data layer allows for a simple place to funnel all the data about your website into an organized format that can later be referenced by analytics tools, marketing tags, and more. This helps ensure that you are passing the same data across tools, and gives the flexibility to assign the product name to, say, variable 37 today but variable 40 tomorrow. (Not that I recommend bouncing around which variable you are using without a very good reason, but that’s one example.)

In the past, with hard-coded implementations, you would need to do things such as specify that it was a particular variable number associated with the product name value, and your development team would have to make that adjustment if things ever changed. Using a data layer also allows you to more easily send data to multiple analytics tools (for example if you have both an Adobe Analytics and a Google Analytics implementation running, they can both reference the same set of objects on the site).

As websites evolve, tasks like updating a manual variable assignment get more cumbersome and error-prone, and introducing inconsistencies generally ends badly in terms of data quality. The data layer takes all that out and provides an easy (and again, human-readable) reference point.

Using the data layer with a tag management system (things like Google Tag Manager, Adobe’s Dynamic Tag Manager [DTM], Tealium, Signal, Ensighten, etc.) allows the analytics team to make adjustments like this without waiting on a formal release or involving a development team. It also allows the development team to keep the analytics data flow consistent during major redesigns of the site. It’s easier to see the requirements and they are more meaningful, versus less human readable lines of code that have to continue to be explained and defined. There’s plenty of defining that goes on when creating a data layer as well, but the starting point is much more understandable.

How are objects referred to within the data layer? The path to an object is referenced with dot notation. In the below example digitalData object, to refer to the pageType, I would refer to This is the type of notation that a tag manager would use. = {

primaryCategory: “FAQ Pages”,

subCategory1: “ProductInfo”,

pageType: “FAQ”};

Is it always called “digitalData”? There are many names for the data layer. The W3C standard name is digitalData, but tag managers like Tealium use utag_data, you will see dataLayer with Google Tag Manager, etc., plus you may see companies that use their own custom names.

Where can I see the data layer? You can open your browser’s console and enter the name of the data layer (see above for common ones), and you will get back a list of key/value pairs within a structure. Some of the data layer may also be visible in the page source depending on many factors, but the console is the most direct and accurate way to see the current values.

To get back the value of only a specific item, you can enter the dot notation format. In the example a few paragraphs up, if I were to enter in the console, I would get back “FAQ”.

How does it fit into the analytics ecosystem? Here is a very basic example of the way the data layer can power an analytics implementation (taking into account the fact that I am not a graphic designer by any stretch of the imagination):

digital data layer process flow

Where do I go from here? Learn more about the specific analytics solutions you are working with and explore how the data layer is set up on your site. This training will vary significantly by tool.

I did not go into JSON arrays since this is a basic intro, but they are very important since they are often used for the products that are being viewed (as one example), and that is very important for most web analytics solutions. It would be good to go through the whole JSON section from W3Schools.

Hope you are able to take some newfound understanding of the process flow and use it to further your web analytics journey!

Update: if you’ve read this and are still asking the question, “Why can’t I just use CSS selectors for everything?”, please read this colorful response from Jim Gordon’s blog:

“It’s just widgets!”: The Dangers of Oversimplification

You could be a web analytics hero with 100 implementations under your belt, a winner of Kaggle competitions, a creator of your own AI platform, and still be perceived as incompetent because of communication and wording issues.

A few years ago, I was presenting at an event and was speaking with people from many different companies beforehand. I was briefly going into the particulars of the business I was in at that time, and the person I was speaking with cut me off and said, “Yeah, it’s all just widgets. No matter what the industry, everyone is just trying to sell more widgets.” Well…not entirely.

The goal of most for-profit companies is to improve their revenue over time, granted. There might be a number of variations on that theme such as increasing market share, changing the product mix in a desired way, launching in a new geographic area, etc.

There are absolutely also non-profit entities whose true goal may lie within the “awareness” space, simply getting people to perform actions in keeping with public or personal health or read about a condition without a specific financial or donation goal in mind (and, of course, plenty that do have a donation goal in mind required to sustain the organization.)

However, the important thing here (and by “here,” I mean from a web analytics perspective) is that an understanding of general business structure and practices does not equate to a specific group or client’s confidence in your abilities.

The reason you are likely working on a web analytics project is that you have the expertise to do so, or are in the process of getting it, and the group or individual that asked you to does not have that time or expertise. The person you are doing it for is (generally) unlikely to evaluate you on your technical skill during a project unless something majorly breaks. So what do they base their perception on?

Often, it’s how accurately you translate their requirements back to them in language that makes sense, and your demeanor in doing so.

Let’s come back to the widgets. If I am in the healthcare field and have hired you to do an implementation for a patient portal, and I refer to the people on this site as “patients”, how will I feel if you say, “OK, you want more sign-up thingies, got it”? The language may not be quite as crude, but you can begin to form an idea of how this might come across. It’s important that the analytics professional reflect back the requirements in the language that the business is actually using, for reasons of precision and mutual understanding. A happy consequence is that the group or client feels heard (reflective listening skills) and is more confident in your abilities (because you appear to listen and properly use terms that they know about.)

Worth highlighting again: this all happens regardless of your actual skill level in analytics. You could be a web analytics hero with 100 implementations under your belt, a winner of Kaggle competitions, a creator of your own AI platform, and still be perceived as incompetent because of communication and wording issues. Perception is not based on your actual skill level since there is often no benchmark to compare you to in the world of the people you are assisting.

So: if you’re great at technical analytics or reporting, the way to get people to realize it is through picking up on proper wording and tone for who you’re working with. If you’re still learning a lot about analytics and reporting, the way to gain trust to take on larger projects is to create satisfaction on the ones you’re working on now through good communication skills. There is no downside!